Operators in C

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An operator is a symbol that helps us to perform specific mathematical and logical computation operation on a value or a variable.

There are following types of operators to perform different types of operations in C language.

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Relational Operators
  3. Logical Operators
  4. Bitwise Operators
  5. Assignment Operators
  6. Other Operators

Arithmetic Operator

An arithmetic operator performs mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc

OperatorDescriptionExample
+Adds two operands.A + B = 30
Subtracts second operand from the first.A − B = -10
*Multiplies both operands.A * B = 200
/Divides numerator by de-numerator.B / A = 2
%Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division.B % A = 0
++Increment operator increases the integer value by one.A++ = 11
Decrement operator decreases the integer value by one.A– = 9

Relational Operators

A relational operator checks the relationship between two operands. If the relation is true, it returns 1; if the relation is false, it returns value 0.

Relational operators are used in decision making.

OperatorMeaning of OperatorExample
==Equal to6 == 4 is evaluated to 0
>Greater than6 > 4 is evaluated to 1
<Less than6 < 4 is evaluated to 0
!=Not equal to6 != 4 is evaluated to 1
>=Greater than or equal to6 >= 4 is evaluated to 1
<=Less than or equal to6 <= 4 is evaluated to 0

Logical Operator

Logical operators are used in decision making in C programming. An expression containing logical operator returns either 0 or 1 depending upon whether expression results true or false.

OperatorDescriptionExample
&&Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true.(A && B) is false.
||Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then the condition becomes true.(A || B) is true.
!Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false.!(A && B) is true.

Bitwise Operator

The Bitwise operators is used to perform bit-level operations on the operands. The operators are first converted to bit-level and then the calculation is performed on the operands.

OperatorsMeaning of operators
&Bitwise AND
|Bitwise OR
^Bitwise exclusive OR
~Bitwise complement
<<Shift left
>>Shift right

Assignment Operator

Assignment operators are used to assigning value to a variable. The left side operand of the assignment operator is a variable and right side operand of the assignment operator is a value.

Other Operators

It includes sizeof ()  and Ternary operators, Comma Operator.

sizeof() is a unary operator that returns the size of data (constants, variables, array, structure, etc.

Comma acts as both operator and separator.comma operator has the lowest precedence of any C operator. Comma operators are used to link related expressions together.

&:- Returns the address of a variable.

Ternary operators / Conditional Operator- ?

Operators Precedence in C

CategoryOperatorAssociativity
Postfix() [] -> . ++ – –Left to right
Unary+ – ! ~ ++ – – (type)* & sizeofRight to left
Multiplicative* / %Left to right
Additive+ –Left to right
Shift<< >>Left to right
Relational< <= > >=Left to right
Equality== !=Left to right
Bitwise AND&Left to right
Bitwise XOR^Left to right
Bitwise OR|Left to right
Logical AND&&Left to right
Logical OR||Left to right
Conditional?:Right to left
Assignment= += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |=Right to left
Comma,Left to right

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